I watched the film documentary “Tell Them We Are Rising” on my local Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) station February 19th. It detailed the history of Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs) beginning from after the Civil War. They had an undeniable and immeasurable impact on the education of African-Americans during times when the doors of white institutions of higher academic achievement were mainly closed to people of color. From the end of the Civil War to over halfway through the 20th Century, the vast majority of African-American doctors, lawyers, nurses, teachers, accountants, and others in professional occupations were educated at HBCUs. A number of players in Negro League baseball also attended HBCUs.
Based on information currently established, an estimated 40% of Negro League baseball players were college educated. The majority, other than a few exceptions, were products of HBCUs. Six (6) are listed below:
Frank “Doc” Sykes – Morehouse College/Howard Medical
While still in medical school, Sykes started his Negro League baseball career pitching for the New York Lincoln Giants in 1914. Between 1914 and 1919, the 6’2” right handed hurler also played with the New York Lincoln Stars, Brooklyn Royal Giants, Philadelphia Giants, and the Hilldale Club of Darby, Pa. His longest tenure, 1920 – 1926, came with the Baltimore Black Sox. After the 1926 season, Sykes retired from baseball became a dentist in his hometown of Decatur, Alabama.
Grady “Dip” Orange – Wiley College
Called “Dip”, short for diploma, Orange began his Negro League baseball career in 1925 with the Birmingham Black Barons. He had the talent and versatility to play any infield position. After the Black Barons, his career included stints with the Kansas City Monarchs (1926 – 1927, 1931), the Cleveland Tigers (1928), and the Detroit Stars (1929 – 1931). Orange graduated from Meharry Medical College after his baseball career ended.
Jimmie Crutchfield – Lincoln University (MO.)
A 5’7”speedy center fielder, Crutchfield played in the Negro Leagues from 1930 – 1945. After short stints with the Birmingham Black Barons (1930) and Indianapolis ABCs (1931), the 4-time Negro League All-Star had his best years with the Pittsburgh Crawfords (1931 – 1936). He teamed with “Cool Papa” Bell and Ted Page to give the Crawfords one of the best outfields in the Negro Leagues at that time. The final years of his career (1941 – 1945) with the Chicago American Giants were interrupted by military service in 1943 – 1944. After retiring from baseball, Crutchfield worked in the postal service 26 years.
Pat Patterson – Wiley College
A standout in football and baseball in college, Patterson played infield with mainly Negro National League (NNL) teams. He had a 13 season career that began in 1934, interrupted by military service from 1943 – 1945. The 4-time All-Star had stints with the Homestead Grays, Kansas City Monarchs, Philadelphia Stars, Newark Eagles, and New York Black Yankees. He also played 2nd base on the 1935 Pittsburgh Crawfords, considered by many one of the best Negro League teams ever assembled. Patterson became a high school teacher, coach, and school administrator in Houston, Texas.
James Buster Clarkson – Wilberforce College
Wherever Clarkson played, he demonstrated an ability to hit a baseball. First in Negro League baseball with the Pittsburgh/Toledo Crawfords (1938 – 39), Newark Eagles (1940), and Philadelphia Stars (1942), he established the reputation as a hard-hitting shortstop/third baseman. In 1941, he followed the same script playing in the Mexican League.
After returning from military service (1943 – 1945), Clarkson re-established his reputation in the Negro Leagues (Philadelphia Stars 1946, 1949), in Mexico (1946 – 47) and in the Canadian League (1948). The Boston Braves signed him in 1950 and he tormented pitchers in the leagues of their minor league system. On April 30, 1952 with the Braves, at 37 years old, Clarkson became the first from a HBCU to play in the Major Leagues. Ironically however, he got off to a slow start hitting .200 and played in only 25 games. Pushed aside in favor of younger white players (Ed Mathews, Johnny Logan, and Jack Cusack), Clarkson went back to the minor leagues where he spent the rest of his career hitting close to .300 with double digits in home runs (42 HRs in Texas League 1954).
Joe Black – Morgan State Univ.
Winning all Central Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (CIAA) honors in football and track (hurdler & javelin throw), Black is in Morgan State’s athletic Hall of Fame. While serving in the military, 1943 – 1945, he became a starter in the Baltimore Elite Giant’s pitching rotation. The 3-time participant in the Negro League East-West All-Star Game signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1950. In his first Major League season, Black had a record of 15 – 4 and national baseball writers voted him 1952 National League Rookie of the Year. On October 1, 1952 Black defeated the New York Yankees to become the first African-American pitcher to win a World Series game. After retiring from baseball in 1957, he went back to college and received a Masters’ Degree, became a high school teacher, and then worked in an executive position with the Greyhound Corporation.
There are many more that could be added to this short list such as David Malarcher (Dillard/Xavier), Monte Irvin (Lincoln Univ. in Pa.), Bill Foster (Alcorn A & M), and Hilton Smith (Prairie View A & M).
The racism of the times contributed to Bus Clarkson’s short stay in the Major Leagues after Jackie Robinson erased the color line. However, a number of HBCU products have had excellent Major League baseball careers. Lou Brock (Southern Univ.) and Andre Dawson (Florida A & M) are in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Also, George Altman (Tennessee A & I), Ralph Garr (Grambling), Hal McRae (Florida A & M), Danny Goodwin (Southern Univ.), Dennis “Oil Can” Boyd (Jackson State), and others from HBCUs have had well established Major League careers.
“Smokey” Joe Williams, Leon Day, Hilton Smith, and other fantastic pitchers who toiled their entire careers in the Negro Leagues never received the opportunity to appear on professional baseball’s main stage; the World Series. When Jackie Robinson erased Major League Baseball’s “invisible color line in 1947 opening the door for African American and dark-skinned Latinos to play, many of the better Negro League pitchers were past their prime. However, there were four former Negro Leaguers who did get the opportunity to take the mound in a World Series game. Three are familiar names in Negro League baseball history. The fourth and last one, Marshall Bridges who was born June 2, 1931 in Jackson, Mississippi, reflects how slow the progress of integration took in the Major Leagues during the 1950s.
On October 10, 1948 Satchel Paige became the first African American to pitch in a Major League World Series game. He pitched 2/3 of an inning in Game 5 for the Cleveland Indians in the 1948 World Series giving up no runs or hits. The Indians lost the game to the Boston Braves 11 – 5, but won the World Series 4 games to 2.
Don Newcombe pitched in the 1949, 1955, and 1956 Series for the Brooklyn Dodgers. The team’s leading hurler and innings workhorse during the regular season, Newcombe seemed to run out of gas in the World Series against the Dodgers’ main nemesis each of those years; the New York Yankees. In five World Series’ starts, he lost four with an ERA of 8.59.
On October 1, 1952 Joe Black of the Brooklyn Dodgers defeated the New York Yankees 4 – 2 to become the first African American pitcher to win a World Series game. He pitched a complete game giving up only six hits in the first contest of that year’s Series. Black, however, lost Game Four and the deciding Game Seven by the identical score of his victory, 4 – 2.
Marshall “Sheriff” Bridges began his professional baseball career as a pitcher and first baseman for the Memphis Red Sox of the Negro American League. Signed by the New York Giants in 1953, the hard throwing left hander spent five seasons pitching in the minor leagues. When he turned 28 years old, Bridges finally made his Major League debut with the St. Louis Cardinals in 1959 winning 6 games while losing 3. He finished second in strikeouts among Cardinal relief hurlers with 76 in 76 innings pitched
The Cardinals released Bridges in August of 1960 and he finished the season with the Cincinnati Reds. The next season, Bridges did not make a mound appearance when Cincinnati lost to the New York Yankees in the World Series four games to one. However, due to a surprising shift of fortune it would be different for him the next year.
A little more than 2 months after the Series, the Reds traded Bridges to New York and he went on to become the top relief pitcher for the 1962 Yankees. In 52 relief appearances, Bridges had his best Major League season winning eight games while saving 18 others and helping the Yankees capture the American League pennant.
The “Sheriff” made two appearances in the World Series pitching a total of three and two- third innings as the Yankees defeated the San Francisco Giants to win the World Championship. However; he made a place in baseball history by surrendering the first World Series grand slam home run hit by a National League player, Giants’ second baseman Chuck Hiller, in the Yankee’s 7 – 3 Game 4 lost.
After being shot by a 21 year old married woman (Carrie Lee Raysor) in a bar during spring training the next season, Bridges fell out of favor with the Yankees. Although there had been off the field incidents involving Yankee star players Mickey Mantle and Whitey Ford, Bridges had crossed the Yankees’ behavior double standard line that his fellow African American teammate Elston Howard had for seven years been able to toe. Bridges recovered from the gunshot wound in his leg, but made only 23 relief appearances for the 1963 Yankees. After the season, the team traded him to the Washington Senators.
For more on Negro League Baseball history, read “Last Train to Cooperstown: The 2006 Baseball Hall of Fame Inductees from the Negro League Baseball Era”. (http://booklaunch.io/kevinlmitchell/last-train-to-cooperstown)