Tag Archives: African American History

Negro League Second Basemen – Part 2

Last fall I had a series of Twitter posts, Kevin L. Mitchell@Lasttraintocoop, listing Negro League Second Basemen.  In last week’s blog I listed ten of those posts.  Following are ten more.

Two of them listed were multiple time Negro League All-Stars, three were on Negro League World Series championship teams, and one broke through the color barrier of a Major League team.  Each of them exemplified the high quality of talent that played the position during the Negro League baseball era:

Curt Roberts, Kansas City Monarchs 1947 – 50, 1st African American to play Pittsburgh Pirates, signed 1953, Pirates 1954 – 56, MLB debut 4/13/54, 1954 hit .232 in 134 games, 1957 – 63 in AAA minor league

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Curt Roberts

 

Elwood “Bingo” DeMoss, considered 1 of best defensive 2nd baseman in Negro Leagues 1910s and early 1920s, mainly Chicago American Giants 1917 – 1925

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Bingo DeMoss

 

McKinley “Bunny” Downs, teams include Hilldale 1917 – 22, Brooklyn Royal Giants 1923 – 24, Harrisburg Giants 1925, as exec Indianapolis Clowns signed high school prospect Henry Aaron early 1950s

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Bunny Downs

 

Barney Serrell, Chicago American Giants 1941, Kansas City Monarchs 1942 – 1945, 10 hits vs Homestead Grays 1942 Negro League World Series won by Monarchs, late 1940s & 1950s in Mexican League

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Barney Serrell

 

John Henry Russell, known for his defense, Memphis Red Sox 1923 – 1925, St. Louis Stars 1926 – 1930, DP combo with HOF SS Willie Wells and HOF 1B Mule Suttles, Pittsburgh Crawfords 1931 – 1933

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John Henry Russell

 

Sammy T. Hughes, 5-time Negro League All-Star, good fielder, consistently solid #2 hitter , speedy base runner, Nashville/Columbus/Washington/Baltimore Elite Giants 1933 – 1940, 1942, 1946

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Sammy T. Hughes

 

Johnnie Cowan, Birmingham Black Barons 1940, Cleveland Buckeyes 1942 – 1947, starting second baseman for Buckeyes’ 1945 Negro League World Series championship team, Memphis Red Sox 1948

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Johnnie Cowan

 

Pat Patterson, 4-time Negro League All-Star, played on various teams, member 1935 Negro National League champion Pittsburgh Crawfords , KC Monarchs 1936, Philadelphia Stars 1938 – 39, 1941 – 42

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Pat Patterson

 

Frank “Weasel” Warfield, Negro League career 1914 – 1932, including Hilldale of Darby, Pennsylvania 1923 – 1928, on Hilldale’s 1925 Negro League World Series Championship team

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Frank Warfield

 

Wilson Connie Day, Indianapolis ABCs 1921 – 1923, Baltimore Black Sox 1924 – 1926, Harrisburg Giants 1927

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W. Connie Day

 

All photos for this post the courtesy of numerous internet sites via Google Images

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Negro League Baseball 2B: Part 1

Last fall on Twitter, follow me at Kevin L. Mitchell @Lasttraintocoop, I posted a series of tweets about Negro League baseball second basemen.

Frank Grant, inducted in 2006, is the only former Negro League baseball second baseman with a plaque in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. However, that does not indicate a lack of talent existed at the position in Negro League baseball.  Listed below are Twitter posts for 10 Negro League second basemen.  At a point in their careers, seven were chosen by fans as to be a Negro League All-Star.  One had a successful AAA minor league career after the integration of white professional.  One has a plaque in the Hall of Fame as an outfielder after changing positions when playing Major League baseball.

Dick Jackson, Atlantic City Bacharach Giants 1921, New York Bacharach Giants 1922, Brooklyn Royal Giants 1923, Harrisburg Giants 1924 – 25, Baltimore Black Sox 1926 – 28, Hilldale 1930, good hitter, hot-tempered

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Dick Jackson

 

Herberto Blanco, New York Cubans 1941 & 1942, Negro League All-Star 1942, also played in the Mexican League, Canadian Provincial League, and US minor leagues, brother Carlos played 1B for Cubans in 1941

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Herberto Blanco

 

William “Billy” Horne, 2B/SS, Chicago American Giants 1938 – 1941, Negro League All-Star 2B 1939 & 1941, Cleveland Buckeyes 1942 – 1944, 1946, military service 1945, good defense, base-stealing speed

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Billy Horne

 

Chester Williams, 2B/SS, multiple teams, 1931 – 1942, Pittsburgh Crawfords 1931 – 1938, Philadelphia Stars 1939 – 1940, Homestead Grays 1941 – 1942, Negro League All-Star 1934 – 1937, solid defense, aggressively competitive attitude

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Chester Williams

 

Lorenzo “Piper” Davis, Negro League All-Star multiple times, Birmingham Black Barons 1943 – 49, Boston Red Sox minor league system 1950, integrated Triple AAA minor leagues (PCL) 1951 – 57

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Piper Davis

 

Dick Seay, 2-time Negro League All-Star 2b, career 1926 – 47, mainly Newark Eagles 1937 – 40, part of 1938 Eagles’ “million dollar infield”, New York Black Yankees 1940 – 42, 1945 – 47, good defense, light hitter

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Dick Seay

 

Walter Cannady, 1921 – 45 Negro League career, INF/OF but 2B best position, played with various teams including New York Black Yankees 1933 – 39, 1-time Negro League All-Star 1938

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Walter Cannady

 

Jimmy Ford, various Negro League teams 1933 – 1945, including Memphis Red Sox 1937, 1944 – 1945, 1941 Negro League All-Star while with St. Louis/New Orleans Stars

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Jimmy Ford

 

Larry Doby, Newark Eagles 1942 – 44, 1946, Negro League All-Star 1946, Negro League World Series champs 1946, signed Cleveland Indians 1947, switched to OF, 7-time MLB All-Star, elected HOF 1998

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Larry Doby

 

Jesse Warren Douglass, Chicago American Giants, 1937, 1944 – 45, Kansas City Monarchs 1940, Birmingham Black Barons 1941, also played shortstop and outfield, independent minor leagues & Mexican League 1950s

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Jesse Douglas

 

BUT WAIT!  I will have a list of others who played the position in Negro League baseball next post.  STAY TUNED!

All photos for this post the courtesy of numerous internet sites via Google Images

Remembering Frank Robinson- Part 2

This is the second part of my tribute to Frank Robinson, my personal favorite baseball player who died of bone cancer this past February 7th.  In remembering him, I will always think about 1966.  That year, I got the opportunity to see him play in person.  And more importantly, after being defined as “past his prime” and traded, Frank Robinson had the best year of his career.

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The Baltimore Orioles did not have a strong history with African-American players since coming into the American League in 1954 when a group of Baltimore investors bought the failing St. Louis Browns franchise and moved it to the city by Chesapeake Bay.  The team followed the American League’s slow pace of racial integration in the 1950s.  Despite building a strong minor league system, the Orioles’ had not developed an African-American star player.  Joe Durham and Jehosie Heard, in 1954, were the first African-Americans to play for the Orioles; both having only brief non-impactful careers. Two former Negro League players had solid seasons with the Orioles in the late 1950s.  Pitcher Connie Johnson won 14 games in 1957 and first baseman Bob Boyd hit .300 three consecutive seasons (1956 – 1958).  In the early 1960s outfielder Sam Bowens had one good season, 1964, hitting 22 home runs in 139 games.  But despite that history, after finishing 3rd the previous two seasons, Baltimore Orioles’ management believed acquiring Frank Robinson could put them over the top in 1966.  He hit a double his first At Bat in spring training starting a magical season that would prove them correct.

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On May 27th that year, while sitting in the upper deck bleachers far down the right field line at the Kansas City Athletics’ Municipal Stadium, I cheerfully saw Frank Robinson take his right field position; I saw the strut.   In his first At Bat, he crowded the plate just as I had seen him do on TV; challenging the pitcher.  In the 4th inning he got hit by the pitch, one of the 198 times of his career.  The next game I attended when the Orioles came to town Robinson went hitless, but the talk of him winning the Triple Crown had begun.  Each day I looked at the newspaper baseball box scores to check his progress.  Robinson finished ahead of 4-time American League home run champion Harmon Killebrew 49 to 39.  He finished ahead of Tony Oliva, who had won the American League batting title the last two seasons, .316 to .307.  With also leading the League with 122 RBI, Robinson won the Triple Crown.

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My high school drafting teacher brought a TV to watch the World Series.  From my front row drafting desk I saw Frank Robinson’s 1st inning two run home run off Los Angeles Dodgers’ pitcher Don Drysdale that set the tone for the Orioles’ four games sweeping of the Series.  He hit another home run off Drysdale to win Game Four.  Named American League Most Valuable Player in 1966, Robinson is the only one to receive MVP honors in both leagues, winning it while with Cincinnati in 1961.  During Robinson’s time in Baltimore, the Orioles also won American League pennants in 1969 – 71 and were World Series champions in 1970.

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Frank Robinson’s autobiography is called “My Life is Baseball” (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group 1975).  That title reflects a true picture of his relationship with the game.  Near the end of his playing career in 1974, he became the first African-American manager in Major League Baseball.  The Cleveland Indians were the first of four teams in Robinson’s 16 year career as a manager, 1,065 wins and 1,176 losses.  He had the reputation as having a “hard-nosed”, “old school” approach at managing, although he did mellow in the in the way he handled players as he got older.   I remember Robinson’s competitive spirit on display when seeing the Indians play the Kansas City Royals in 1975.  Throughout the National Anthem, Robinson jawed back and forth with the home plate umpire while they both looked up at the flag.  He had his critics, but also gained the highest respect and esteem in the Major League Baseball community for his overall accomplishments in the sport.  During his career, Frank Robinson served as a batting coach, an outfield coach, a consultant for club owners, and held positions in the Office of Major League Baseball.

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I will miss my favorite baseball player.  Playing on my high school’s first baseball team the spring of 1967 and throughout the amateur summer leagues, I chose # 20 as my uniform number.  I still have his 1959, 1960, 1964 Topps baseball cards (lost 1965s) and also the Post Cereal Frank Robinson cards for 1961 – 63.  I still have memories of that 1966 season.  Also, I still have that vision of my first seeing of him circling the bases after that home run in the 1959 All-Star Game.  Frank Robinson had the run, that strut, I will never forget.

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Remembering Frank Robinson – Part One

From 1959 – 1962 there were two Major League All-Star Games played with most of the revenue from the second going for players’ pension fund.  During the telecast of the second All-Star Game in 1959, played on August 3 at the Los Angeles Coliseum, I saw Frank Robinson for the first time.  I had only heard about him when my father and older brothers talked about African-American baseball players.  However; three days before my 8th birthday, I got my first real look at #20 that afternoon on our RCA black & white TV screen.  The 83 years old former outfielder and manager died this past February 7th.  I know this post will get lost in the thousands of verbal and written tributes to him and his accomplishments in baseball.  But I have to write it.  I took the death of Frank Robinson, my favorite all-time baseball player, # 20, personally.  In remembering him, the following  thoughts come to my mind.

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First, I will remember Frank Robinson as the first African-American star Major League baseball player that did not get his start in Negro League baseball.  Signed out of McClymonds High School in Oakland, California by the Cincinnati Redlegs in 1953, he faced the existing racial discrimination in professional baseball in the 1950s; in the minor leagues (SALLY League 1955) and in spring training (Tampa, Florida).  Before national sportswriters voted Robinson National League Rookie of the Year in 1956 when he hit .293 with 38 home runs, the previous African-American winners were all former Negro League players:  Jackie Robinson (1947), Don Newcombe (1949), Sam Jethroe (1950), Willie Mays (1951), Joe Black (1952), and Jim Gilliam (1953).  In 1961 Frank Robinson won National League Most Valuable Player (MVP) honors (.323 BA, 37 HRs, 124 RBI, 22 SB) leading Cincinnati to win the National League pennant.  The African- American MVP Award winners up until that time were all former Negro League players:  Jackie Robinson (1949), Roy Campanella (1951, 1953, 1955), Willie Mays (1954), Henry Aaron (1957), and Ernie Banks (1958, 1959).   Frank Robinson followed the path in the 1950s set by Jackie Robinson and other former Negro League players to have a Hall of Fame (1982 inductee) baseball career.

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Secondly, I will always remember how Frank Robinson ran.  During that second 1959 Major League All-Star Game, Robinson hit a 5th inning home run off Early Wynn.  The way he circled the bases in his sleeveless Cincinnati Redlegs (they were not called the Reds back in 1959) uniform wearing a red short-sleeved jersey underneath, got my attention.  To me, Robinson had a distinctive running style; straight-backed, stiff-legged, pumping his arms up and down at his hips.  It seemed like a confident strut or pimp, a reflection of his highly competitive aggressive approach to playing baseball, and it stuck in my mind about him.  I still have an image of other stars from that era; Mickey Mantle swinging his bat with all his body’s physical strength, Willie Mays running from under his cap, Henry Aaron playing with such ease and grace he hardly seem to break a sweat, and Ernie Banks’ smiling “let’s play two” joy about the game.  But Frank Robinson, to me, had the run; the strut.

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Then I will always remember Frank Robinson’s best season, 1966.  Cincinnati’s trade of him to the Baltimore Orioles on December 9, 1965 turned the American League on its head.  The team rosters of that 1959 All-Star Game when I first saw him reflected the slower pace of racial diversity in the junior circuit at that time.  The American League All-Star team had three African-American or dark-skinned Latino ball players as compared to nine for the National League.  It had been twelve years since Jackie Robinson erased the color line in 1947, but two American League clubs had just become integrated; the Detroit Tigers with Ozzie Virgil in 1958 and the Boston Red Sox with Pumpsie Green in 1959.  In 1963, Elston Howard of the New York Yankees, a product of Negro League baseball, became the first African-American to receive MVP honors in the American League.  In ten years with Cincinnati, Robinson hit 324 home runs while averaging 100 RBIs and a .301 batting average.  However General Manager Bill Dewitt, believing him past his prime and calling him “an old 30 years of age with an old body”, in what would turn out to be one of the worst trades in baseball history sent Frank Robinson to the American League.

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My tribute to the late Frank Robinson will continue in my next blog post.  Stay tuned!

 

All images used for this post were taken from internet web sites

Remembering Those Who Played Their Last Inning in 2018 – Part One

A BELATED HAPPY NEW YEAR!

Before getting further into 2019, I need to briefly mention the Negro League players who took the field for the last inning of life’s game in 2018.  Of the five listed, one briefly played Major League baseball and another in the minor leagues after Jackie Robinson erased the “invisible color line” in 1947.  The others played during the rapid decline of the Negro Leagues in the 1950’s or on teams in the Negro minor leagues.  Neither of the ex-players in the post is considered a “famous name”, but the lives of each are a chapter in the Negro League baseball story.

I may not have been aware of the death in 2018 of others from the Negro League baseball era, so the list could be incomplete.

 

Roosevelt Jackson – May 5, 2018

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Born 12/20/17 in Gay, Georgia; Jackson became known at events honoring Negro League baseball during the last years of his life as the “oldest player from the Negro League era”.  He played both infield (2B) and outfield during the 1930’s and 1940’s with Negro minor leagues teams in Florida;  Miami Globetrotters, Hollywood (Fla.) Redbirds, Miami Red Sox, Belle Glade Redwings.  These teams were on the Florida spring barnstorming circuit of the major Negro League clubs.  After integration, Jackson did scouting for the Philadelphia Phillies.

 

William “Youngblood” McCrary   – July 21, 2018

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While attending high school in Beloit, Wisconsin; McCrary drew interest from the St. Louis Cardinals.  However, with African-Americans still barred from organized white baseball, the team referred him to the Kansas City Monarchs.  Beginning as a 17 years old reserve shortstop, McCrary played for the Monarchs from 1946 – 1948.  Because of his young age, “Satchel” Paige called him “Youngblood”.  McCrary signed with the New York Yankees in 1949 and spent two years in its minor league system.

 

Jose Santiago – October 9, 2018

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Born September 4, 1928 in Coamo, Puerto Rico, Santiago pitched for the 1947 Negro League World Series champion New York Cubans.  Before the next season, Cubans’ owner Alex Pompez sold a number of his players to Major League franchises for money to keep his team operating.  Santiago went to the Cleveland Indians.  He stayed in the team’s minor league system for six years before making his Major League debut on April 17, 1954.  He became the second player from Puerto Rico to be in the American League.  After he had a 2 – 0 record in 1955, the Indians traded Santiago to the Kansas City A’s who released him halfway through the 1956 season.  He never again pitched for another Major League team.

 

Edward Burton – October 18, 2018

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The Harrisburg Giants were a strong team in the Eastern Colored League (ECL) from 1925 – 1927.  Famous Negro League players such as Oscar Charleston, Rap Dixon, Clarence “Fat” Jenkins, and John Beckwith played with the team at one time during the period.  The ECL disbanded in 1928 and by the time Edward Burton joined the Giants in 1947, it had become a low-level, Negro minor league team.  A second baseman, Burton played against Negro American League teams barnstorming though Harrisburg until 1955.  For the last few years he had participated in activities honoring Negro League baseball in Charlotte, NC; where he died.

 

Frank “Bubba” King   – December 8, 2018

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Born 6/23/23 in East Point, GA., King played professional/semi-professional baseball from 1936 – 1958 with local black teams in the Atlanta area; East Point Bears, Atlanta Cards, College Park Indians.  These teams kept black baseball alive in Atlanta down through the Negro League era.  In the 1940’s King, an outfielder, played with the Atlanta Black Crackers of the Negro Southern League (NSL); a Negro minor league team.

 

I need to mention five former players not from the Negro League baseball era who died in 2018.  For each I have my own personal reflection which will be in my next post.  Stay tuned!

 

Negro League Baseball Catchers – Part Two

From March through June on Twitter, follow me at Kevin L. Mitchell @LastTraintocoop, I wrote about Negro League Baseball catchers.

Currently there are four former Negro League catchers in the National Baseball Hall of Fame:  Roy Campanella (1969), Josh Gibson (1972), James Raleigh “Biz” Mackey (2006), and Louis Santop (2006).  However, there were others who developed the skills necessary to handle the responsibilities of the position and who made outstanding contributions to the success of their teams.

I listed ten of my Negro League catcher Tweets in the May 28th blog post, “Negro League Baseball Catchers – Part One”.  Following is listed another ten.  They all came before the erasing of the “invisible color line” and did not play Major League baseball.  But, they helped to build the legacy of the Negro Leagues.

 

John Hines, Chicago American Giants 1924 – 1930, 1932, 1934. Negro League World Series champs 1926 and 1927, attended Wiley College.

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John Walter Burch, Negro League baseball 1934 – 1946, teams included Atlantic City Bacharach Giants 1931, Homestead Grays 1936, Cleveland Buckeyes 1943 – 1944, 1946.  Buckeyes manager in 1942.

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Leon “Pepper” Daniels, Detroit Stars 1921 – 1927, battery mate of Hall of Fame pitcher Andy Cooper, Chicago American Giants 1931.

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Bob Clarke, Negro League career 1923 – 1948.  Played mainly with Baltimore Black Sox 1923 – 1928, New York Black Yankees 1933 – 1940, Baltimore Elite Giants 1941 – 1946.

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Pete Booker, Negro League 1905 – 1919, teams included Philadelphia Giants, Leland Giants, New York Lincoln Giants, Brooklyn Royal Giants, Chicago American Giants, Indianapolis ABCs, Also played 1B

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Lloyd “Pepper” Bassett, Negro League career 1935 – 1946, played with several teams including Pittsburgh Crawfords and Birmingham Black Barons (1943 & 1944 Negro American League champions)

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WG “Bill” Perkins, Negro League career 1928 – 1948, 2-time Negro League All-Star, best years 1931 – 1936 Pittsburgh Crawfords, frequent battery mate of Satchel Paige.

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Joe Greene, Kansas City Monarchs 1939 – 1943, 1946 – 1947.  Handled pitching staff that included “Satchel” Paige, Connie Johnson, Hilton Smith, Jack Matchett, etc.

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Frazier Robinson, Kansas City Monarchs 1942 – 1943, New York Black Yankees 1943, Baltimore Elite Giants 1943, 1946 – 1950.

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Bill “Ready” Cash, 2-time Negro League All-Star, Philadelphia Stars 1943 – 1949.  Briefly played in Chicago White Sox minor league systems 1950s.

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All photos for this post the courtesy of numerous internet sites via Google Images

Tribute to Ed Charles: Part Two

This is the second part of my tribute to Ed Charles a baseball player I admired during the 1960s when he played with the Kansas City A’s.  I discovered this summer Charles died earlier this year on March 15.

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Although he did not receive any votes for 1962 American League Rookie of the Year, Ed Charles had a solid initial year in the Major Leagues.  He hit .288 with 17 HRs, 74 RBI, and 20 stolen bases.  Playing for the 9th place Kansas City A’s did not give him much help in the voting despite his statistics.  However, he did make the 1962 Topps All-Star Rookie team.

In Ed Charles’ five full seasons with the A’s (1962 – 1966), the team finished no higher than 7th place.  On average per year for that period, he hit 13 HRs, had 62 RBI, batting .270 with 14 stolen bases.  These offensive statistics were not equal to the best third baseman in the American League during that time, Brooks Robinson of the Baltimore Orioles, who averaged 20 HRs, 90 RBI, and a .287 batting mark.  However, Charles’ per year offensive averages for the period were compatible with other American League top “hot corner” men:

Pete Ward (Chicago White Sox) 14 HRs, 65 RBIs, hit .260

Rich Rollins (Minnesota Twins) 11 HRs, 59 RBI, hit .273

Clete Boyer (New York Yankees) 14 HRS, 57 RBI, hit .246

Max Alvis (Cleveland Indians) 19 HRs, 59 RBI, hit .257

Frank Malzone (Boston Red Sox) 13 HRS, 63 RBI, hit .269

The way he consistently hit in the minor leagues, it is no surprise when given the opportunity Charles would be a capable Major League hitter.

Defensively, Brooks Robinson won five Gold Gloves at third base from 1962 – 1966.  He averaged 12 errors per year with a .974 fielding percentage.  Charles, during this period, averaged 16 errors per year with a .960 fielding percentage making him statistically above par in terms of defense with the other top American League third basemen who averaged 19 errors and had a .954 fielding percentage.

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But Ed Charles’ running style is what first captured my attention of him.   Most fans called it a glide.  He turned his elbows outward, pumping his arms up and down together in coordination with his stride.  Seeing it more like a prideful strut or pimp, I loved it.  To me, Frank Robinson had the only other distinctive running style at that time.

The way Charles swung his bat also got my attention.  He had a slight hitch in his swing, but used strong wrists and forearms that still allowed him to hit with power.  On July 31, 1964, my neighborhood friends and I went to see an A’s and Baltimore Orioles doubleheader.  After losing the first game, the A’s rallied to tie the nightcap 6 – 6 in the eighth  inning.  In the late innings, the stadium ushers allowed kids from the bleachers to go down to the box seats which would then be empty.  This gave us the opportunity to see and hear Major League players up close.  The O’s brought in pitcher Steve Barber to face the A’s in the ninth and Charles greeted him with a home run to win the game.  I saw Ed Charles up close one other time that summer when he turned the switch on the new lighting for the inner-city baseball field in my neighborhood.

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Charles’ poetry began to get notice during his time with the A’s.  I remember him reciting the one called “An Athlete’s Prayer” on the radio or TV dugout show a number of times.

In 1967, the Kansas City A’s were building the team that would become World Series Champions in 1972, 1973,and 1974 after owner Charlie Finley moved it to Oakland when  that season ended.   But 34 years old Ed Charles did not fit into the team’s plans.  On May 10 the A’s traded him to the last place New York Mets.  I did not totally lose track of Charles’ career after the trade.  In 1968, he proved to still be a suitable Major League hitter for again a bottom rug team, 15 HRs, 53 RBI, and a .276 batting average.  This is what he had done his entire Major League career.

But the baseball fate of Ed Charles made a remarkable turnaround in 1969 when the  New York Mets won the World Series.   He went 2 for 4 in Game 2 with a double in New York’s 2 – 1 win.  A picture of the celebrating Mets after the final out to close out the Series shows a smiling, jubilant Ed Charles.  After toiling nine years in the minor leagues and seven with bottom rug Major League teams, Charles reached the top of pro baseball’s world; a place where some Hall of Fame players never reached.1036268_1969worldseries

Remembering Ed Charles Part One

This summer I have juggled coaching a baseball team of eight to twelve years old kids while teaching a course on the history of Negro League baseball; “Negro League Baseball:  The Deep Roots of African-Americans in America’s National Pastime”, and visiting grandchildren in Texas.

Included in the summer curriculum of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of Kansas, the course discussed the deep historical roots African-Americans have in the sport due to the Negro League baseball era.  Although he did not play in the Negro Leagues, I briefly mentioned former Major League player Ed Charles in the introductory section of the course.  I wanted to give the students a brief history of how as a kid I fell in love with baseball.  Edwin Douglas Charles had a part in that history.  In my  research preparing for the course I discovered Charles had died last March 15th in the East Elmhurst section of the New York City borough of Queens. The former third baseman was 84 years old.

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A baby boomer born and raised in the Kansas City area, I became a baseball fan through following the Kansas City A’s in the late 1950s; a team that consistently finished near the bottom of the American League standings.  Much to the chagrin of Kansas City baseball fans, the A’s functioned as a player development team for the New York Yankees at that time.  They would trade their best players to New York; Hector Lopez, Harry “Suitcase” Simpson, Roger Maris, Bob Cerv, Ralph Terry, and Clete Boyer, in exchange for utility players or those past their prime.  I saw Hank Bauer, Don Larson, Marv Throneberry, Johnny Kucks, Norm Siebern, and other former Yankees dawn an Athletics’ uniform.  The A’s finished the 1960 season in last place and were the only Major League team without an African-American or dark-skinned Latino ballplayer.

In 1961, Charlie Finley purchased the team and the next season racially diversified it adding to the roster John Wyatt, Jose Tartabull, Diego Segui, Orlando Pena, Manny Jimenez, and Ed Charles.  A product of the depression era and post-World War II “Jim Crow” south, born April 29, 1933 in Daytona Beach, Florida, Charles had been obtained in a trade with the Milwaukee Braves.  The team signed him in 1952 while still the Boston Braves, but for 10 seasons he labored in its minor league system.  That included stops at the A to AAA levels in places such as Jacksonville, Louisville, Wichita, and Vancouver.

Although the “invisible color line” had been erased, Charles along with other African-American and dark-skinned Latino players in the 1950s experienced the open racial prejudice that existed in professional baseball’s minor league systems.  Overall he hit .291 in the minor leagues and showed occasional home run power.  But Charles played 3rd base, the position manned during that period for the Braves by 2-time National League home run champion and future Hall of Fame inductee (1978) Eddie Mathews.  Charles had the versatility to play 2nd base, but there is no evidence the Braves thought about a shift despite the inconsistent performances at the position in 1959 and 1960 during Red Schoendienst’s absence due to illness.  The A’s would finally give Charles, at 29 years old, the opportunity to prove himself as a Major League player.

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Given that opportunity, Ed Charles over the next five years became an above average, solid ballplayer on a team that consistently finished near last in the American League. Also; he caught the eye of a ten-years old baseball fan that would keep a love for the game that would not just extend beyond the trading card collection years, but would continue for more than half a century.

Part Two of my tribute to Ed Charles is in my next blog post.  I promise it will not be three months before it appears!

Revisiting Nate Colbert’s Big Day

Nate Colbert of the San Diego Padres tied a Major League record on August 1, 1972 by hitting five home runs in doubleheader.  The story surrounding the first baseman’s feat reflects how the baseball dreams of African-American boys changed as a result of Jackie Robinson erasing Major League baseball’s “invisible color line” in 1947.

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On May 2, 1954 in a doubleheader against the New York Giants; St. Louis Cardinal right fielder Stan Musial hit five home runs.  There were 26,662 in attendance that Sunday afternoon at St. Louis’ Busch Stadium to see him do what no other Major League player had accomplished.   In the first game, Musial hit three home runs and drove in six runs in the Cardinal’s 10 – 6 victory.  He hit 2 homers and drove in three runs in the nightcap, but the Giants won 9 – 7.

In the stadium that spring afternoon with his father was eight year old African-American Nate Colbert.  I can visualize the excitement on little Nate’s face in seeing his favorite Cardinal ballplayer, “Stan the Man”, hit those five home runs. But Colbert that day also saw Cardinal rookie first baseman Tom Alston, the first African-American to appear in a Major League game for the St. Louis Cardinals.

For the first time in the franchise’s history, the 1954 Cardinal team had African-American players. The 28-year-old Alston made his Major League debut on April 13, earlier than Brooks Lawrence (June 24) and Bill Greason (May 31), the other two African-Americans on the team.  A good defensive first baseman, he had a hot bat against the Giants in the doubleheader witnessed by little Nate.  In the first game Alston got four hits including a home run, his third of the young season, and two RBIs.  The second game he hit a bases loaded double (3 RBIs) in the Cardinals’ first inning.  He ended the day batting .313.

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Wally Moon (left), Stan Musial (center), Tom Alston (right)

Little Nate also saw that day three former Negro League baseball players who appeared in both games for the Giants: Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, and Hank Thompson. Irvin and Thompson in 1949 were the first African-Americans to play for the Giants.

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Fast forward this story to 1964. 18-year-old Nate Colbert is signed by the Cardinals, but they lose him to the Houston Astros in the 1965 Rule Five draft and he never plays a game in the uniform of his hometown team.  The Astros then traded him to the San Diego Padres in 1969.

On August 1, 1972; in Colbert’s fourth season with the Padres, he ties the record he saw Stan Musial set in 1954.  Colbert hits five home runs in a doubleheader against the Atlanta Braves at Fulton County Stadium in Atlanta.  He hits two home runs and drives in five runs as the Padres win the first game 9-0 and hits three homers driving in eight runs in his team’s 11 -7 victory in the nightcap.  For the second time in his six years with the Padres, Colbert hits 38 home runs in 1972.

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Little Nate Colbert’s Major League career did not come close to that of Stan Musial who is a 1969 Hall of Fame inductee.  To tie or break a record in baseball; however, is considered a great accomplishment.   And Colbert being present to see the record set that he would eventually tie makes this a unique circumstance.   In addition, Colbert got the opportunity to be able to do what he saw his childhood favorite Cardinal ballplayer do because of what he also witnessed that May afternoon.

By seeing Tom Alston, Willie Mays, Hank Thompson, and Monte Irvin play that day; Colbert witnessed the new day in Major League baseball that was occurring. It had dawned in 1947 when Jackie Robinson became the first African-American in the 20th Century to play Major League baseball.  It was a new day in which the baseball dreams of little Nate Colbert and other African-American boys were no longer confined to Negro League baseball.  A new day that would produce stories like Nate Colbert’s and others as the racial barriers in professional baseball were pulled down in the 1950s and 1960s.

 

Teaching a Course on Negro League Baseball

Last month, I taught a course for the summer 2018 session of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of Kansas.  Entitled, ” Negro League Baseball:  The Deep Roots of African-Americans in America’s National Pastime”, the course examined the deep roots African-Americans have in America’s great game because of the Negro League baseball era.  It explained how the Negro Leagues provided a vehicle for African Americans and dark-skinned Latino players to showcase their baseball talents despite racial and economic obstacles, painting a true picture of how Negro League baseball is embedded into the fabric of 20th-century American History.

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Those attending the course were baseball fans of baby-boomer age and older.   Some had very little knowledge of the Negro League era while others were familiar with Negro League lore about “Satchel” Paige, Josh Gibson, and “Cool Papa” Bell.  However, they all saw Negro League baseball as a neglected part of the sport’s history and wanted to know more about it.  This led to course sessions full of questions and lively discussions about not just Negro League baseball, but also the history of race relations in America.

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I want to thank KU’s Osher Institute Director Jim Peters for including my course in this summer’s session.  Also, I thank the 17 baseball fans who took six hours from their summer activities to attend the course.

 

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