Category Archives: Kevin L. Mitchell

2021 Baseball HOF Golden Days Committee Results

Last month on December 5, five former baseball players received the necessary votes to be a part of the National Baseball Hall of Fame’s Class of 2022. The Hall’s Early Baseball Era Committee, which considers candidates whose primary contributions to baseball came prior to 1950, elected former Negro League players/managers Bud Fowler and John “Buck” O’Neil. The Golden Days Era Committee, which considers candidates whose primary contributions to baseball came between 1950 – 1969, elected former Major League players Gil Hodges, Jim Kaat, Tony Oliva, and Saturnino Orestes “Minnie” Minoso. The induction ceremony will be July 24 at the Hall of Fame Museum in Cooperstown, New York.

The other candidates on the Golden Days Era Committee ballot not elected to the Class of 2022 were Dick Allen (who missed by one vote), Ken Boyer, Danny Murtaugh, Maury Wills, Billy Pierce, and Roger Maris.

The names on the Golden Days Era Committee’s ballot brings back memories of the 1964 Major League season. That year, the American and the National League pennant races went down to the last games of the season before a winner emerged. All ten of the candidates on the Golden Days Committee’s ballot were still active in the Major Leagues that season; five in the National League and five in the American League. Two were in their rookie seasons and two were at the end of their careers. One began the growing pains that would lead to being a successful manager, while one had a pause put on his role as a Major League manager. One played on a team in the last year of its dynasty, while another played on a team that would sandwich the season between two World Series championships. One reached the high mark of his career, while for another it would be year six of 25 years in the Major Leagues.

In the National League on September 20th of 1964, the Philadelphia Phillies were in first place leading the Cincinnati Reds and St. Louis Cardinals by six and one-half games. One of the reasons for the Phillies’ success, newcomer third baseman Richie Allen. It would be a few more years before Allen would prefer to be called by the name which his mother and family addressed him; “Dick”.  Allen’s .318 Batting Average with 29 HRs and 91 RBI that summer earned him the honor of being 1964 National League Rookie of the Year. Highlights of his 15 years in the Major League include hitting 356 HRs, being a seven-time All Star, and being named 1972 American League Most Valuable Player while with the Chicago White Sox.  Despite Allen’s heroics in 1964, the Phillies lost ten straight games beginning September 21 and finished in second place on game behind the St. Louis Cardinals.

Richie/Dick Allen

The Cardinals clinched the National League pennant by beating the New York Mets 11 – 5 the last game of the season. Third baseman Ken Boyer, at the height of his 15 years Major League career in 1964, led the team. Boyer, a seven-time All Star who would finish with 282 HRs and 1,141 RBI, hit .295 that season with 24 HRs and 119 RBI.  Named the 1964 National League Most Valuable Player, Boyer also hit a home run to help the National League win the All-Star Game that season. He is considered one of the best third basemen in the Major Leagues during the late 1950s and early 1960s.


Ken Boyer

The San Francisco Giants were only two games out of first place on October 2, however, the team lost its last two games and finished fourth. It would be the last of the 18 years career for Giants’ lefthanded relief pitcher Billy Pierce (3 – 0, 34 game appearances, forty-nine innings pitched). The six-time All Star lefthanded ace of the Chicago White Sox pitching staff in the 1950s, Pierce won 218 games including 35 shutouts and two 20 game winning seasons.  He pitched the first four innings of the White Sox 5 – 3 win against the Kansas City A’s on August 20, 1961; the first Major League game I attended.

Billy Pierce

The 1963 World Series champions, the Los Angeles Dodgers, slipped to sixth place in 1964. Dodgers’ shortstop Maury Wills hit .275 and won the fifth of his six straight National League stolen base titles with 53. The Dodgers would rebound to be World Series champions in 1965.

Maury Wills

The Pittsburgh Pirates in 1964 tied with the Dodgers for sixth place. After the season Pirates’ manager Danny Murtaugh retired. He had been the team’s manager since 1957 and led the Pirates to be World Series champions in 1960. Murtaugh came out of retirement for another stint as Pirates’ manager in 1970 and led the team to another World Series championship in 1971.

Danny Murtaugh (left)

The candidate needed twelve votes (75%) for election to the Hall of Fame. Dick Allen received eleven while the other four each received less than four. I am surprised that Ken Boyer and Maury Wills did not receive more votes. But that is my generational bias speaking. To me, a 13 years old baseball super fan in 1964, the pennant races that season were the most exciting I had experience.

I will talk about the five other players on the Golden Days Era Committee ballot my next post.

Baseball HOF Voting for Negro League Players

Seven former players from the Negro League baseball era are on the ballot that will be considered by the National Baseball Hall of Fame’s Early Baseball Era Committee on this coming Sunday, December 5th. If any of the players receive a vote from at least 75% of the 16-member Committee (12 votes), he will be a part of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Class for 2022. The induction ceremony will be July 24 at the Hall of Fame Museum in Cooperstown New York.

This will be the first-time former Negro League players have been given Hall of Fame consideration since 2006. Prior to that year, 24 former players from the Negro Leagues were in the Hall of Fame. Realizing that number not being a true representation of Negro League baseball’s contribution to the game, Major League Baseball commissioned a group of Negro League historians to make recommendations for addition potential inductees. As a result, 12 ballplayers and 5 owners/executives were a part of the Hall of Fame Class for 2006: the Hall of Fame’s largest number of inductees from Negro League baseball in one year.

However, a concern arose as to whether the number inducted in 2006 indicated there were no others from the Negro Leagues worthy of Hall of Fame consideration. To address this and other issues concerning past eras, the Hall of Fame switched to an Era Committee format to select potential inductees. One of the Era Committees, the Early Baseball Era, considers candidates whose contributions to baseball were realized prior to 1950. This committee will vote on candidates for Hall of Fame induction once every 10 years.

The former Negro League players/managers this year on the Early Baseball Era Committee ballot for Hall of Fame induction are as follows:

John “Bud” Fowler (Infielder, Pitcher)

Bud Fowler

The first African American professional baseball player, Fowler played with several minor league white professional teams beginning in 1877. After the establishment of the “invisible color line” in the late 1880’s which barred African American and dark-skinned Latinos from white professional baseball, he played with many of the early African American professional baseball teams.

Grant “Home Run” Johnson (Shortstop)

Grant Johnson

One of the best hitters in black professional baseball during the dead-ball era (1900 – 1920), Johnson wore the uniform of top African American teams during that era such as the Philadelphia Giants, Brooklyn Royal Giants, and Chicago Leland Giants. He received the nickname from his clutch timing of hitting home runs, not the quantity.

Richard “Cannonball Dick” Redding – Pitcher

Dick Redding

One of the best pitchers in black professional baseball in the dead-ball era and the early 1920’s.  The blazing speed of his fastball made Redding a contemporary of Walter Johnson, Major League baseball’s ace during that period.

John Donaldson – Pitcher

John Donaldson

Starting in 1913, Donaldson spent over 20 years in black professional baseball.  The left-hander pitched for black independent teams that born-stormed through the country during 1913 – 1919.  He also pitched with the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro National League (1920 – 1924), the first African American professional baseball league.

George “Tubby” Scales – Infielder

George Scales

A career .319 hitter, Scales spent 27 years in the Negro Leagues (1921 – 1948) with teams including the New York Lincoln Giants 1923 – 29 and Homestead Grays 1925 – 26, 1929 – 31, 1935.  He also led the Baltimore Elite Giants as player/manager in 1938, 1943, and 1947.

Vic Harris – Manager

Vic Harris

A career .305 hitter, Harris spent most of his entire Negro League career as left fielder and then manager with the Homestead Grays (1925 – 1933, 1935 – 1948); one of the most renown franchises in Negro League baseball.  As manager, he led the Grays to nine consecutive Negro National League pennants (1937 – 1945). 

John “Buck” O’Neil – 1B/Manager

Buck O’Neil

The three-time All Star played first base for the Kansas City Monarchs, another of the most renown Negro League franchises, during the periods 1938 – 1943 and 1946 – 1955. He became the team’s manager in 1948. The first African American to become a Major League coach (Chicago Cubs 1962), O’Neil is one of the co-founders for the Negro League Baseball Museum in Kansas City, Missouri.   

It will be 2032 before the Early Baseball Era Committee will next consider candidates for Hall of Fame induction.

The Hall of Fame’s Golden Days Era Committee considers candidates for induction who made contributions to the game from 1950 – 1969. Saturnino Orestes “Minnie” Minoso, who had a 17 year, nine-time All Star career in Major League baseball is on the ballot in which this committee will vote Sunday.  Minoso, who got his start in the Negro Leagues, played on the 1947 Negro League World Series champion New York Cubans.

Minnie Minoso

Course on Big Eight Christmas Basketball Tournament

This is a basketball history course I will teach via Zoom for the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of Kansas on October 29, November 5 & 12.

“Holiday College Basketball in Kansas City: History of the Big Eight Christmas Tournament”

Wilt Chamberlain

Bob Boozer

Before the Big 12 Conference, it was the Big Eight. Claiming Wilt Chamberlain as its greatest basketball alumnus, it was considered one of the most renown college basketball conferences in the country. From 1946 through 1978, the conference had its round robin holiday tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri between Christmas and New Year’s Day. It was one of the best college basketball tournaments in the country. In the beginning, when only six, then seven, teams were in the conference, other non-conference teams were invited. Former pro basketball players such as JoJo White, Bob Boozer, Clyde Lovellette, Cliff Meely and Garfield Heard played in the tournament. There were also many who were part of this tournament’s history that never played professional basketball. What made the tournament exciting is when a team not predicted to finish high in the conference would “catch lightning in a bottle” for that week and win the tournament. The course will explore the history of the tournament and discuss factors which would lead to the tournament’s demise in 1978.

 Session Detail: OC22163O

Schedule:Every week on Friday, starting on 10/29/21 and ending on 11/12/21
Times:01:00pm – 02:30pm
  View Full Schedule  |     Add to my Calendar
Price:Single Osher Course : $50.00

Click on to enroll

Course on Baseball During World War II

This is a baseball history course I will teach via Zoom for the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of Kansas on

July 14, 21, 28.

Baseball Goes to War: World War II and the National Pastime

After the United States entered World War II in 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the continued operation of both Major League and Negro League baseball. The president believed the “National Pastime” would help boost home front morale during the difficult war years lying ahead for the country. This course examines the results of President Roosevelt’s decision. It will explore the war’s affect on professional baseball; the fans, teams and individual players. Class participants will also learn how the “National Pastime” operated during the war and how the result of the international conflict would initiate post-war changes that occurred in professional baseball. Instructor Bio: Kevin L. Mitchell is the baseball history blogger of The Baseball Scroll ( and author of Last Train to Cooperstown: The 2006 Baseball Hall of Fame Inductees from the Negro League Era. The Kansas City, Kan. native earned bachelors and master’s degrees from the University of Kansas.

 Session Detail: OC21341O

Schedule:Every week on Wednesday, starting on 07/14/21 and ending on 07/28/21
Times:03:00pm – 04:30pm
  View Full Schedule  |     Add to my Calendar
Price:Single Osher Course : $50.00

Baseball Goes to War: World War II and the National Pastime – Shopping cart (

1st MLB African American DP Combo

Shortstop Ernie Banks and Second Baseman Gene Baker were first African American infield double play duo in Major League baseball. From 1954 – 1956, they were the #1 infield double play combo for the Chicago Cubs. Click on the following link for more:

Banks & Baker
Banks & Baker

Dr. King and Jackie Robinson

Today is the national celebration for the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., what would have been his 92nd.  Much will be written giving tributes to his life and the impact his legacy continues to have not only on this country, but also the world.  However, in celebrating Dr. King each year on his birthday, I write about his relationship with his favorite baseball player; Jackie Robinson. 

When Jackie Robinson crossed the “invisible color line” in 1947 to be the first African American to play Major League baseball in the 20th Century, he became the idol of an 18 years old teenager in Atlanta, Georgia; Martin King Jr.  Like many other African Americans at that time, whether baseball fans or not, the Brooklyn Dodgers were the young King’s favorite baseball team because of Jackie Robinson.  Many of those African American Dodger fans, including King, remained loyal to the team after Robinson retired and it relocated to Los Angeles in 1958.  In addressing the 1966 Milwaukee Braves’ move to his hometown of Atlanta, Dr. King indicated it would complicate his personal allegiance that had existed since 1947.  “And so I have been a Dodger fan”, he said, “but I’m gonna get with the Braves now”.*

But Dr. King had been more than a fan of the Dodgers; he understood the significance for African Americans of what Jackie Robinson had done in 1947.  After becoming a leader in the Civil Rights movement, Dr. King knew where his idol as a teenager’s accomplishments fit overall in reference to race relations in this country.

When Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat on that Montgomery, Alabama city bus in December of 1955 triggering the Civil Rights movement of the late 1950s and 1960s, Jackie Robinson neared the end of his baseball career.  He announced his retirement on January 5, 1957; fifteen days after the successful end of the Montgomery bus boycott led by the 26 year old pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

In the 1960s, Robinson became actively involved in the Civil Rights movement with Dr. King.  He spoke at Dr. King’s rallies in the South, marched in demonstrations with him, and held fund raisers for Dr. King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).  Dr. King and Robinson became co-laborers in the African American struggle for equality.  He considered Jackie Robinson a friend.

At a testimonial dinner for Jackie Robinson on July 20, 1962 celebrating his upcoming National Baseball Hall of Fame induction in three days, Dr. King paid tribute to him.  He defended Robinson’s right to speak out about segregation and civil rights.  “He has the right”, King insisted stoutly,  “because back in the days when integration was not fashionable, he underwent the trauma and the humiliation and the loneliness which comes from being a pilgrim walking the lonesome byways towards the high road of Freedom.  He was a sit-inner before sit-ins, a freedom rider before freedom rides.  And that is why we honor him tonight.”**

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. may have liked other sports.  However; because of Jackie Robinson, baseball appeared to be his favorite.  Since idolizing Robinson while being a teenager in 1947, Dr. King never forgot the significance of the baseball player’s accomplishments in the struggle of African Americans for equality.

*”At Canaan’s Edge:  America in the King Years 1965 – 1968”, Taylor Branch, p.394

**”Jackie Robinson:  A Biography”, Arnold Rampersad, p.7

Baseball History Course

I will teach an online course for the spring session of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of Kansas. The course, “Dawning of a New Day: The 1950’s Racial Integration of Major League Baseball”, will be on February 11, 18, & 25; 3:00 pm – 4:30 pm. For registration information, click on the “Available Sessions” link below or call 913 – 897 – 8530.

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Pictured above are the New York Giants starting outfielders for the 1951 World Series: Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, & Hank Thomposon

Here is a course description:  On April 15, 1947 Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers became the first African American to play Major League baseball in the 20th Century. He erased the racial barrier, called the “invisible color line” that had kept African American and dark-skinned Latinos out due to racial discrimination since the late 1880s. However, by 1950 only three of the 16 Major League clubs had African American or dark-skinned Latinos on the roster. This course will tell story of the slow, yet steady pace of racial integration in professional baseball during the 1950s. It will cover from the beginning of the decade to the last team to integrate in 1959, the Boston Red Sox; all with the growing civil rights movement in the United States as the backdrop. 

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Pictured above are Chicago Cubs’ shortstop Ernie Banks & Cubs’ second baseman Gene Banks

Available sessions

February 11-25, 2021, Zoom Facilitated Sessions (Online, WEB)

MLB TIME CAPSULE 1950s: Tom Alston’s Big Day

The focus for my blog posts during this COVID 19 shortened 2020 Major League baseball season has been baseball time capsules from the 1950s.  During that decade, the pace of integration in the Major Leagues slowly, but steadily went forward.  As a consequence, due to the decrease in its talent pool, Negro League baseball had begun a journey towards extinction by the early 1960s.  All of this with the early Civil Rights movement as a back drop.

This week’s post is about Tom Alston, the first African American to appear in a Major League game for the St. Louis Cardinals.  On May 2, 1954, in a doubleheader against the New York Giants, the rookie first baseman had the best game of his short Major League career. In the first game Alston had four hits including a home run, his third of the young season, and two RBIs.  The second game he hit a bases loaded double (3 RBIs) in the Cardinals’ first inning.  He ended the day batting .313. 

Tom Alston

In 1947, Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers erased Major League baseball’s “invisible color line” that had kept out African American and dark-skinned Latino players since the end of the 19th century.  Over the next six years, along with the Dodgers, African American and/or dark-skinned Latinos would play with seven other teams; the Cleveland Indians, St. Louis Browns, New York Giants, Milwaukee Braves, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Cubs, and Philadelphia A’s.  In 1954, the color line would be erased on four other teams; the Pittsburgh Pirates, Cincinnati Reds, Washington Senators, and St. Louis Cardinals. 

The Cardinals, one of the Major League’s most renowned franchises, had been reluctant to accept the changing winds for racial diversity in professional baseball.  The progress of racial integration in St. Louis mirrored that of cities in southern states at that time.  Many stores and restaurants refused to serve African American customers.  Also, the Cardinals were the last Major League team to abolish racially segregated seating at their home stadium.  However after buying the team in 1953, new Cardinals’ owner August A. Busch, Jr. wanted the team to be reflective of the African American target market for his company’s product; Budweiser beer.

Born 1/31/26 in Greensboro, North Carolina; Thomas Edison Alston played baseball at North Carolina A & T following a stint in the military.   After two minor league seasons on teams coached by former Negro League pitcher Chet Brewer, he caught the Cardinals’ attention while playing for San Diego (Pacific Coast League) in 1953.  With Alston having a power hitters’ body (6’, 5” and 210 lbs.) along with showing agility playing first base, the Cardinals paid $100,000 to obtain his contract.

Tom Alston

For the first time in the franchise’s history, the 1954 Cardinal team would have African American players; Alston along with pitcher Brooks Lawrence and former Negro League pitcher Bill Greason.  The 28 years old Alston made his Major League debut on April 13 becoming the first African American to play in a game for the St. Louis Cardinals.  Although not as historic, his debut occurred a little more than a month before the 1954 landmark US Supreme Court Brown vs Board of Education ruling (May 17) that struck the first blow in making racial segregation against African Americans unconstitutional.   

Tom Alston

 After a slow start, hitting only .211 in April, Alston hit .411 the first 11 days of May which included that May 2 doubleheader against the New York Giants. But, National League pitchers discovered his weakness; the high inside fastball and Alston hit .181 in June with no homes runs. The Cardinals sent him to the minor leagues and moved Hall of Fame outfielder Stan Musial to first base.  Alston tried regaining his batting hitting 21 home runs with 80 RBI playing for AAA Omaha in 1956.  However, it never resurfaced for him at the Major League level.  In 1955 – 1957, he hit .139 in 25 games with the Cardinals.

Wally Moon, Stan Musial, & Tom Alston on May 2, 1954

Alston began a battle with mental illness during the 1957 season. Diagnosed as having schizophrenia in 1958, he would spend the next 11 years in a North Carolina psychiatric institution.  It is unclear if Alston’s mental condition played a role in his inability to handle the pressure of being the Cardinals’ first African American player his rookie season.   However, what happened on May 2, 1954 is forever clear. On that day, Tom Alston had the best day of his short Major League baseball career.

Negro League Baseball History Course

In November I will teach the following course via Zoom for the University of Kansas Osher Lifelong Learning Institute’s Fall Session:  The Negro National League:  A Journey Through the Stormy Seas of Professional Baseball.  The course will consist 3 sessions 1:00 PM – 2:30 PM on November 11, 18, and 25. For registration information, click on “Available Sessions” link below or call 913 – 897 – 8530.

Andrew “Rube” Foster

Here is a course description:  As a reflection of the harsh racial attitudes in 1920, African American and dark-skinned Latino players were kept out of white professional baseball. Within this difficult racial environment black baseball team owner/manager Andrew “Rube’ Foster birthed the Negro National League on Feb. 13, 1920 in Kansas City, Missouri. It became the first successfully operated African American professional baseball league. 2020 is its 100th anniversary. Foster saw it as a ship travelling through the stormy sea of racial segregation. We will examine how despite closing down in 1931, it produced 13 Hall of Fame inductees and became the blueprint that sustained Negro League baseball until the color barriers in baseball were erased.

James “Cool Papa” Bell

Available sessions

November 11-25, 2020, Zoom Facilitated Sessions (Online, WEB)

MLB TIME CAPSULE 1950s: Bob Thurman’s Big Day

The focus for my blog posts during this COVID 19 shortened 2020 Major League baseball season has been baseball time capsules from the 1950s.  During that decade, the pace of integration in the Major Leagues slowly, but steadily went forward.  As a consequence, the talent pool for the Negro Leagues decreased setting it on a journey towards extinction by the early 1960s.  All of this with the early Civil Rights movement as a back drop.

This week’s post is about former Negro League outfielder Bob Thurman.  On August 18, 1956 while playing for the Cincinnati Redlegs, Thurman hit three home runs.  The make-up of his team, still called Redlegs and not Reds in 1956, gave an indication of racial integration in the Major Leagues nine years after the color line had been erased.

Drafted into the military while playing in the semi-professional baseball leagues of Wichita, Kansas, Bob Thurman saw combat duty during World War ll in New Guinea and the Philippines.  After leaving military service in 1946, he played with the Homestead Grays during the last years of owner Cum Posey’s “long gray line”.  Long time Negro League veterans Josh Gibson, Buck Leonard, “Cool Papa” Bell and others were still with the Grays; however Posey died before the season started.  Signed as a left handed pitcher, Thurman proved to be a better power hitter and became the team’s regular centerfielder.  With the veteran players approaching the end of their baseball careers, Josh Gibson died in 1947, the Grays mixed in Thurman along with future Major League players Luke Easter and Luis Marquez to help the team remain competitive.  In 1948, the Grays defeated the Birmingham Black Barons in the last Negro League World Series.

With the Negro National League disbanding after the 1948 season, Thurman signed with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro American League.  Monarchs’ manager Buck O’Neil had a team that included future Major League players Elston Howard, Connie Johnson, Gene Baker, Hank Thompson, and Curt Roberts.  The Monarchs were looking to sell their best players to Major League teams in order to remain operating profitably.  On July 29, 1949 the New York Yankees purchased Thurman’s contract and he became the first African American signed by the team.   

Bob Thurman

However, the Yankees were not serious about integration.  Although Thurman batted .317 at Triple AAA minor league Newark Bears for the remainder of that season, the Yankees traded him to the Chicago Cubs.  The Cubs were also slow embracing integration and released Thurman in 1952 despite him having respectable years in the team’s minor league system.  It would not be until 1954 before Ernie Banks became the first African-American to play for Chicago’s north side team. 

Thurman spent the next two years playing summer and winter Caribbean league baseball.  After a tremendous winter league season in 1955, he signed with the Cincinnati Redlegs mainly as a 34 years old reserve outfielder/pinch hitter and made his Major League debut on April 14, 1955; a little more than a month before his actual 38th birthday.

Bob Thurman

On August 18, 1956, the Redlegs hit eight home runs in a 13 – 4 victory over the Milwaukee Braves.  After hitting a double in the third inning, Bob Thurman hit home runs in the fifth, seventh, and eighth.

In addition to Thurman, the other former Negro League players on the Redlegs’ roster that season were George Crowe, Chuck Harmon, Joe Black, and Pat Scantlebury.  All were thirty-plus years old and nearing the end of their playing careers.  However, with Major League scouts draining the Negro League talent pool by 1956, more African-American and dark-skinned Latino players were being signed who never played Negro League baseball.  Twenty years old Frank Robinson hit two of the eight home runs for the Redlegs in that August 18 game.  The 1956 National League Rookie of the Year and 1986 Hall of Fame inductee did not play in the Negro Leagues. Neither had eighteen years old Redlegs’ outfielder Curt Flood.  He appeared in five games that season and later played 12 years with the St. Louis Cardinals.

If the New York Yankees in 1949 had known Bob Thurman’s real age of 32, they would not have signed him.  Neither would the Redlegs in 1955 had they known him being almost 38!  But finally given the opportunity to play in the Major Leagues, Bob Thurman certainly proved in that game on August 18, 1956 that his time for hitting a baseball had not passed him by.  He hit 35 home runs in his five seasons (1955 – 1959) with Cincinnati. 

All pictures via Google Images

For my daily historical notices go to Kevin L. Mitchell @Lasttraintocoop

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